[DC3] Community networks, IETF/IRTF work, the GAIA WG (was: A Community-Run ISP Is the Highest Rated Broadband Company in America)

Leandro Navarro leandro at pangea.org
Mon Sep 3 14:29:37 UTC 2018


Anyone else with ideas to discuss in the GAIA WG or IRTF/IETF RFCs
related to community networks?

On 3/9/18 15:50, sivasubramanian muthusamy wrote:
> On Wed, Aug 29, 2018 at 4:16 PM Leandro Navarro <leandro at pangea.org
> <mailto:leandro at pangea.org>> wrote:
> [...]
>
>     We also have the public Internet, where public specs and tech that
>     can help. What do you think these specs (IETF) should pay
>     attention to?
>
>     This is the list of active working groups:
>     https://datatracker.ietf.org/wg/
>
>
> IETF could pay attention to interoperability of existing
> infrastructure, pay attention to aspects such as resource sharing,
> particularly Wireless Spectrum and fiber networks, both submarine and
> terrestrial. Also on convergence technologies - on various ways by
> which VOIP could evolve more like subscribed mobile (handset) telephony.

Thanks Sivasubramanian, can you elaborate a bit more on this? (so we can
relate it to existing or new work in IETF/IRTF) ?

For instance, in the last GAIA meeting I had a talk about sharing of
fibre in submarine and terrestrial
(https://datatracker.ietf.org/meeting/102/materials/slides-102-gaia-network-deployments-for-universal-connectivity-gaia-leandro-navarro-00)

> The WG page link lists all working groups - there are several -  Which
> of these groups are most pertinent to Community Networks? Does your
> question pertain to existing working groups, or aspirationally suggest
> new topics for new working groups?

I was sharing the question, in general, about which IETF WG (a new WG is
starting too high) we should meet to ensure the Internet public
specifications they produce are "compatible" with community networks, or
at least they polish some specific obstacles. For instance, I saw in
IETF WG there was a discussion that one particular message in the
protocol was intended to facilitate flow management to ISPs at the risk
of disclosing a bit of info about usage, which means that specifications
take into account the needs of those that use them.

I see, for instance, opportunities, but there must be many more:

- in the routing and security area with trust in wireless mesh routing
protocols (http://people.ac.upc.edu/leandro/pubs/semtor.pdf)

- or in the description (http://netjson.org/ or
http://en.wiki.guifi.net/wiki/CNML/en) and management of networks
(self-configuration, discovery if some adaptations needed for CN),

- or in the use of decentralized algorithms for resource allocation
(like IP ranges or names) [there is a IRTF WG about that]

- in ways to reduce the cost of Internet access, aggregating and sharing
N Internet gateways among M users (in mesh networks), with M >> N
(instead of the more expensive M == N for commercial interest)
(http://people.ac.upc.edu/leandro/pubs/icnsc-acc17.pdf)

- in considerations about human rights (HRPC), with an overlap with GAIA.

I can help you to connect with to the corresponding contacts in IETF/IRTF.


Regards, Leandro.

>
> Sivasubramanian M
>  
>
>     In the IRTF, the research branch of IETF, there are relevant WG
>     (at least GAIA, HRPC, perhaps DINRG).
>     As co-chair, together with Jane, of the GAIA WG
>     (https://datatracker.ietf.org/rg/gaia/about/), we would like to
>     know from you and work to move forward.
>
>     Leandro.
>
>     On 28/8/18 23:02, Sivasubramanian Muthusamy wrote:
>>     Dear Leanardo,
>>
>>
>>     On Tue, Aug 28, 2018, 9:54 PM Leandro Navarro <leandro at pangea.org
>>     <mailto:leandro at pangea.org>> wrote:
>>
>>         Nice to read about frugal 5G. I see you combine the Wi-Fi
>>         with mobile operator models and centered into the SDN model.
>>         Nice, a bit confusing. I don't see why centering all under
>>         SDN and a global controller.
>>
>>         Just a general comment/clarification about wireless (mobile,
>>         Wi-Fi ...). The G is about Generations, and there are several
>>         related but separate things in the 5G bundle:
>>
>>     It is interesting that you have identified the components of the
>>     bundle of 5G promises. 
>>
>>         - A lot of it (the "new radio") will come anyway to Wi-Fi
>>         (for instance 802.11ax in the 2.4-5GHz, ad or ay in 60GHz)
>>         with speeds in the range of 1-20 Gbps. One discussion from
>>         the IEEE Communications Society:
>>         http://techblog.comsoc.org/2018/07/21/will-802-11ax-be-a-5g-contender/
>>
>>
>>     The aspiration here is the 1-20 GBPS speed. If ax or ay can
>>     deliver that, that is where our focus needs to be. 
>>
>>     Your link points to the IEEE paper that says 
>>
>>     "all such “5G” BWA deployments (e.g. Verizon, C-Spire, etc)  are
>>     proprietary"
>>
>>     ."once the cost curve comes down, 802.11ax Wi-Fi has the
>>     potential to deliver 5G-like user experiences at a fraction of
>>     the cost of similar cellular gear" 
>>
>>
>>         Therefore, the target speeds of 1 Gbps of user experience and
>>         peak up to 20 Gbps will come anyway and probably at the same
>>         time in mobile and Wi-Fi networks (both types of radio
>>         chipsets more or less come from the same sources).
>>
>>
>>     If we have ax or ay standard access points at the last mile, what
>>     technologies we need in the middle that are not proprietary and
>>     not cartel-dependant?
>>
>>         - The other is about business models: 5G is about mobile
>>         operators, and keeping as much as possible in their
>>         controlled networks, away from the open Internet.
>>
>>
>>     The idea is to break away from these business models, stay away
>>     from controlled networks, use open technologies, make an AP,
>>     build a tower of some other sort, connect to the wire on the sea
>>     shore and deliver 1-20 GBPS,, call it "CN nextG", forgive me for
>>     the pun :)
>>
>>         In that model, mobile operator networks offer very high
>>         quality (low latency, performance guarantees) at a price
>>         inside their own network, while keep both "eyeballs" and
>>         content providers as customers inside its network.
>>
>>         The Internet is outside (the operator's "walled garden"),
>>
>>     Not acceptable. This thread is about Internet as the lifeline,
>>     everywhere, in it's wholeness, for everyone, always.
>>
>>         slowerr and less predictable, in their model. In that
>>         centralized (operator) model, software defined networks make
>>         a lot of sense, much less in Internet networks like community
>>         networks.
>>
>>         Wi-Fi and community networks clearly differ in the "business
>>         models" from mobile operator networks. Your Wi-Fi access
>>         point at home may be "yours" and can be meshed with others
>>         and become part of a community network if you want to, but
>>         your 5G base station at home will be an operator box,
>>
>>     which would be another perpetual trap
>>
>>         justt a service.
>>
>>         - Regarding service cost and coverage, my bet is 5G, the big
>>         investment required, may slow down the expansion of mobile
>>         access to rural and remote areas, as the focus is in
>>         higher/premium quality service for a higher price service,
>>         and higher infrastructure cost per customer (high margin),
>>         instead of "best-effort"/commodity quality, at low price, low
>>         cost hw per customer (thin or negative margin).
>>
>>         If you want more, we have a research paper exploring some of
>>         these issues http://people.ac.upc.edu/leandro/pubs/5G.pdf
>>
>>         Comments are very welcome,
>>
>>         let's see if we can develop alternative models for "next
>>         generation" models for everyone,
>>
>>
>>     + + + 1
>>
>>     Sivasubramanian M
>>
>>         not mainly focused on those with high-end mobiles in dense
>>         affluent areas.
>>
>>         Regards, Leandro.
>>
>>
>>         On 28/8/18 05:41, Sarbani Banerjee Belur wrote:
>>>
>>>         Dear Jane,
>>>
>>>         Prof. Abhay Karandikar is working on 5G solutions for rural
>>>         broadband. His presentation can be viewed in the link below.
>>>
>>>         https://www.ee.iitb.ac.in/~karandi/talks/Rural%20Broadband%20and%20Frugal%205G.pdf
>>>
>>>         With regards,
>>>
>>>         Sarbani
>>>
>>>
>>>         On 28-08-2018 03:54, Jane Coffin wrote:
>>>>
>>>>         Hi Siva –
>>>>
>>>>          
>>>>
>>>>         Thank you for this.
>>>>
>>>>          
>>>>
>>>>         From what I have seen – 5G seems to be an urban solution
>>>>         with some heavy equipment costs (still in projection phase).
>>>>
>>>>          
>>>>
>>>>         Have you seen any presentations on 5G and rural solutions?
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>         Best,
>>>>
>>>>         Jane
>>>>
>>>>          
>>>>
>>>>          
>>>>
>>>>         Internet Society | www.internetsociety.org
>>>>         <http://www.internetsociety.org>
>>>>
>>>>         Skype:  janercoffin
>>>>
>>>>         Mobile/WhatsApp:  +1.202.247.8429
>>>>
>>>>          
>>>>
>>>>         *From: *<dc3-bounces at listas.altermundi.net>
>>>>         <mailto:dc3-bounces at listas.altermundi.net> on behalf of
>>>>         Sivasubramanian M <6.Internet at gmail.com>
>>>>         <mailto:6.Internet at gmail.com>
>>>>         *Reply-To: *Dynamic Coalition on Community Connectivity
>>>>         <dc3 at listas.altermundi.net> <mailto:dc3 at listas.altermundi.net>
>>>>         *Date: *Monday, August 27, 2018 at 6:17 PM
>>>>         *To: *"steve at villagetelco.org"
>>>>         <mailto:steve at villagetelco.org> <steve at villagetelco.org>
>>>>         <mailto:steve at villagetelco.org>, Dynamic Coalition on
>>>>         Community Connectivity <dc3 at listas.altermundi.net>
>>>>         <mailto:dc3 at listas.altermundi.net>
>>>>         *Subject: *Re: [DC3] A Community-Run ISP Is the Highest
>>>>         Rated Broadband Company in America
>>>>
>>>>          
>>>>
>>>>         I am not sure if the attached Qualcomm presentation by
>>>>         Yongbin Wei has already been shared by any one in this
>>>>         mailing list. Found this, interesting because it talks
>>>>         about horizontal and vertical spectrum sharing, says MM
>>>>         bands are naturally more suitable for sharing, talks about
>>>>         Spatial Division Multiplexing, others on this list might
>>>>         understand all this better...
>>>>
>>>>          
>>>>
>>>>         Aspire and take CNs to 5G ????
>>>>
>>>>          
>>>>
>>>>         On Mon, Aug 27, 2018 at 11:57 PM Sivasubramanian M
>>>>         <6.Internet at gmail.com <mailto:6.Internet at gmail.com>> wrote:
>>>>
>>>>             Dear Steve,
>>>>
>>>>              
>>>>
>>>>             Thank you for your kind words.
>>>>
>>>>              
>>>>
>>>>             I took time to respond to your message as I was
>>>>             spending time on http://villagetelco.org
>>>>             <http://villagetelco.org/> .  Watched the video on the
>>>>             front page, and it was fascinating to learn that mesh
>>>>             potato also doubles as some form of a local telecom
>>>>             intranet.  
>>>>
>>>>              
>>>>
>>>>             Long before messenger, skype and whatsapp, sometime
>>>>             during 2000, a friend from Montreal told me that his
>>>>             telecom provider bundled wireless in his cellular
>>>>             telephone, and provided the ability for the subscribers
>>>>             to use the phone as a phone, and also as a wireless
>>>>             handset, with options (don't recollect if it was for
>>>>             the extended cellular range or for the limited wireless
>>>>             range, and not sure if the wireless range was different
>>>>             from the cellular range) for each subscriber to choose
>>>>             five other subscribers as an inner network, flip a
>>>>             button and talk to any of them, and the four others in
>>>>             turn had the ability to choose their own circle of five
>>>>             friends. 
>>>>
>>>>              
>>>>
>>>>             Mesh potato enhances the value of the Community
>>>>             Networks by enabling local communications. When the
>>>>             Internet of Community Networks is bundled with LAN
>>>>             features, and even more, with close circle network
>>>>             features, the value of the Community Network surpasses
>>>>             that of commercial networks. Just a thought. ( I am
>>>>             also reading your hardware specifications with interest.)
>>>>
>>>>              
>>>>
>>>>             Sivasubramanian M
>>>>
>>>>              
>>>>
>>>>             On Mon, Aug 27, 2018 at 10:50 PM Steve Song
>>>>             <steve at villagetelco.org
>>>>             <mailto:steve at villagetelco.org>> wrote:
>>>>
>>>>                 Dear Siva,
>>>>
>>>>                  
>>>>
>>>>                 Thank you for taking the time to review and make
>>>>                 such thoughtful commentary on the draft paper.  We
>>>>                 will certainly take your feedback into
>>>>                 consideration in producing the final version.
>>>>
>>>>                  
>>>>
>>>>                 Regards... Steve (and Carlos)
>>>>
>>>>                  
>>>>
>>>>                 P.S.  Love the parking lot analogy!
>>>>
>>>>                  
>>>>
>>>>                 On Mon, 27 Aug 2018 at 12:34, Sivasubramanian M
>>>>                 <6.Internet at gmail.com
>>>>                 <mailto:6.Internet at gmail.com>> wrote:
>>>>
>>>>                     Dear Jane,
>>>>
>>>>                      
>>>>
>>>>                      
>>>>
>>>>                     Please receive the attached comments on the
>>>>                     ISOC Spectrum Paper together with some
>>>>                     unverified thoughts.
>>>>
>>>>                      
>>>>
>>>>                     Sivasubramanian M
>>>>
>>>>                      
>>>>
>>>>                     On Sat, Aug 25, 2018 at 2:13 AM Sivasubramanian
>>>>                     M <6.Internet at gmail.com
>>>>                     <mailto:6.Internet at gmail.com>> wrote:
>>>>
>>>>                          
>>>>
>>>>                         On Mon, Aug 20, 2018, 7:11 AM Jane Coffin
>>>>                         <coffin at isoc.org <mailto:coffin at isoc.org>>
>>>>                         wrote:
>>>>
>>>>                             Hi Siva –
>>>>
>>>>                              
>>>>
>>>>                             Brian Hall from NYC Mesh is included in
>>>>                             this thread.  He can help explain NYCMesh.
>>>>
>>>>                              
>>>>
>>>>                             I fully agree that different
>>>>                             connectivity models need to be
>>>>                             considered and would add that different
>>>>                             policy/regulatory models also need to
>>>>                             be considered.  It is something we are
>>>>                             keenly in favor of 😉
>>>>
>>>>                              
>>>>
>>>>                             Links to some recent papers on
>>>>                             Community Networks also are below and
>>>>                             attached is a Spectrum Paper we are
>>>>                             looking for feed-back on by 24 August. 
>>>>
>>>>                         midnight DC time? 
>>>>
>>>>                          
>>>>
>>>>                         Thanks.
>>>>
>>>>                          
>>>>
>>>>                          
>>>>
>>>>                             Steve Song, Carlos Rey-Moreno, Mike
>>>>                             Jensen are the primary authors with
>>>>                             direction/collaboration with our team
>>>>                             at the Internet Society.  Please send
>>>>                             me an email if you do have comments for
>>>>                             us to consider.
>>>>
>>>>                              
>>>>
>>>>                             Other Resources:
>>>>
>>>>                             Case Study/Article re CN in Georgia: 
>>>>                             https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2018/01/05/technology/caucuses-mountains-internet.html
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>                             African CN Paper – Partnership with
>>>>                             Carlos Rey-Moreno: 
>>>>                             https://www.internetsociety.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/CommunityNetworkingAfrica_report_May2017_1.pdf
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>                             India – CN Paper – Partnership with
>>>>                             DEF: 
>>>>                             https://www.internetsociety.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/W4C-Policy-Paper_Dec2017.pdf
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>                             Licensing Brief: 
>>>>                             https://www.internetsociety.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/Unleashing-Community-Networks_Innovative_Licensing_Approaches-2.pdf
>>>>
>>>>                             Spectrum Approaches for CNs: 
>>>>                             https://www.internetsociety.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Spectrum-Approaches-for-Community-Networks_20171010.pdf
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>                              
>>>>
>>>>                             The inputs to the IGF from this
>>>>                             Coalition are really great and Luca has
>>>>                             the links.
>>>>
>>>>                              
>>>>
>>>>                             Best,
>>>>
>>>>                             Jane
>>>>
>>>>                              
>>>>
>>>>                              
>>>>
>>>>                              
>>>>
>>>>                              
>>>>
>>>>                             Internet Society |
>>>>                             www.internetsociety.org
>>>>                             <http://www.internetsociety.org>
>>>>
>>>>                             Skype:  janercoffin
>>>>
>>>>                             Mobile/WhatsApp:  +1.202.247.8429
>>>>
>>>>                              
>>>>
>>>>                             *From:
>>>>                             *<dc3-bounces at listas.altermundi.net
>>>>                             <mailto:dc3-bounces at listas.altermundi.net>>
>>>>                             on behalf of Sivasubramanian M
>>>>                             <6.Internet at gmail.com
>>>>                             <mailto:6.Internet at gmail.com>>
>>>>                             *Reply-To: *Dynamic Coalition on
>>>>                             Community Connectivity
>>>>                             <dc3 at listas.altermundi.net
>>>>                             <mailto:dc3 at listas.altermundi.net>>
>>>>                             *Date: *Thursday, August 16, 2018 at
>>>>                             1:47 PM
>>>>                             *To: *Dynamic Coalition on Community
>>>>                             Connectivity <dc3 at listas.altermundi.net
>>>>                             <mailto:dc3 at listas.altermundi.net>>,
>>>>                             osama manzar <osamam at gmail.com
>>>>                             <mailto:osamam at gmail.com>>
>>>>                             *Subject: *Re: [DC3] A Community-Run
>>>>                             ISP Is the Highest Rated Broadband
>>>>                             Company in America
>>>>
>>>>                              
>>>>
>>>>                             Dear Jane,
>>>>
>>>>                              
>>>>
>>>>                             Thank you for the informative messages
>>>>                             and links. DEF has done considerable
>>>>                             work in the area of Community Networks,
>>>>                             and several networks such as the one
>>>>                             that Sarbani has written about exist in
>>>>                             India. However there are issues related
>>>>                             to the scale and scope of operation,
>>>>                             which revolve around the regulatory
>>>>                             policies that make it a little
>>>>                             difficult to create and operate networks. 
>>>>
>>>>                              
>>>>
>>>>                             If I understood well, the NY Mesh
>>>>                             network has a supernode from the IXP
>>>>                             and its bandwidth comes from the
>>>>                             IXP.   I am copying this thread to
>>>>                             Osama Manzar of DEF to ask if there are
>>>>                             examples of Community Networks in India
>>>>                             that do not depend on agreements with
>>>>                             Telecom Operators / telecom related
>>>>                             ISPs, which may not wholeheartedly
>>>>                             support Community Networks beyond the
>>>>                             notion of small rural networks. 
>>>>
>>>>                              
>>>>
>>>>                             There are a few problems that need to
>>>>                             be addressed, and a different
>>>>                             connectivity model may be required
>>>>                             together with ample support from the
>>>>                             Telecom ministry for the spread of
>>>>                             community networks in India. 
>>>>
>>>>                              
>>>>
>>>>                             Thank you.
>>>>
>>>>                              
>>>>
>>>>                              
>>>>
>>>>                              
>>>>
>>>>                              
>>>>
>>>>                              
>>>>
>>>>                             On Thu, Aug 16, 2018 at 11:01 PM Jane
>>>>                             Coffin <coffin at isoc.org
>>>>                             <mailto:coffin at isoc.org>> wrote:
>>>>
>>>>                                 Apologies - I hit send before
>>>>                                 adding the links:
>>>>
>>>>                                 DEF:  http://defindia.org/
>>>>                                 Video on The Land of Zero Connect: 
>>>>                                 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fq27X8CJLTM
>>>>                                 Link to APC's Community Network
>>>>                                 Newsletter: 
>>>>                                 https://www.apc.org/en/project/local-access-networks-can-unconnected-connect-themselves
>>>>                                 ISOC's Community Network site: 
>>>>                                 https://www.internetsociety.org/issues/community-networks/
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>                                 Internet Society |
>>>>                                 www.internetsociety.org
>>>>                                 <http://www.internetsociety.org>
>>>>
>>>>                                 Skype:  janercoffin
>>>>
>>>>                                 Mobile/WhatsApp:  +1.202.247.8429
>>>>
>>>>                                 On 8/16/18, 11:52 AM,
>>>>                                 "dc3-bounces at listas.altermundi.net
>>>>                                 <mailto:dc3-bounces at listas.altermundi.net>
>>>>                                 on behalf of Jane Coffin"
>>>>                                 <dc3-bounces at listas.altermundi.net
>>>>                                 <mailto:dc3-bounces at listas.altermundi.net>
>>>>                                 on behalf of coffin at isoc.org
>>>>                                 <mailto:coffin at isoc.org>> wrote:
>>>>
>>>>                                     To add - you will find a lot of
>>>>                                 interesting information here at the
>>>>                                 DEF site:
>>>>                                     See also this video about a
>>>>                                 remote area of India and lack of
>>>>                                 connectivity and Community Networks
>>>>                                 coming in to help:
>>>>
>>>>                                     We often hear these arguments
>>>>                                 about "coverage".  The issue is not
>>>>                                 just the mobile network footprint
>>>>                                 (coverage area), but whether the
>>>>                                 services are affordable, and if
>>>>                                 end-users have a choice.  Community
>>>>                                 Networks are a viable option in
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>                                     Internet Society |
>>>>                                 www.internetsociety.org
>>>>                                 <http://www.internetsociety.org>
>>>>
>>>>                                     Skype:  janercoffin
>>>>
>>>>                                     Mobile/WhatsApp:  +1.202.247.8429
>>>>
>>>>                                     On 8/16/18, 11:27 AM,
>>>>                                 "dc3-bounces at listas.altermundi.net
>>>>                                 <mailto:dc3-bounces at listas.altermundi.net>
>>>>                                 on behalf of Sarbani Banerjee
>>>>                                 Belur"
>>>>                                 <dc3-bounces at listas.altermundi.net
>>>>                                 <mailto:dc3-bounces at listas.altermundi.net>
>>>>                                 on behalf of
>>>>                                 sarbanibelur at iitb.ac.in
>>>>                                 <mailto:sarbanibelur at iitb.ac.in>>
>>>>                                 wrote:
>>>>
>>>>                                         Hi Sivasubramanian,
>>>>
>>>>                                         Community networks does
>>>>                                 exist in India and it is a
>>>>                                 sustainable initiative.
>>>>                                         Gram Marg at IIT Bombay has
>>>>                                 set up one spanning 10 villages in
>>>>                                 Palghar,
>>>>                                         Maharashtra, Digital
>>>>                                 Empowerment Foundation has set up
>>>>                                 some as well. There
>>>>                                         are more going to be set up
>>>>                                 in this year and the next. These
>>>>                                 CNs are set
>>>>                                         up in locations that have
>>>>                                 no mobile connectivity and are
>>>>                                 usually in
>>>>                                         remote, rural villages of
>>>>                                 India.
>>>>                                         Local ISPs have come to the
>>>>                                 rescue and provide bandwidth in
>>>>                                 such locations.
>>>>
>>>>                                         With regards,
>>>>                                         Sarbani
>>>>
>>>>                                         > In Chennai, India, I
>>>>                                 spoke to someone in an educational
>>>>                                 institution about
>>>>                                         > starting a Community
>>>>                                 Network. He argued that access is
>>>>                                 no longer a problem
>>>>                                         > as Telecom companies
>>>>                                 offer 3G and 4G services
>>>>                                 everywhere. He wouldn't
>>>>                                         > listen to arguments
>>>>                                 concerning the cost and clever
>>>>                                 pricing models of
>>>>                                         > access
>>>>                                         > that indiscernably amass
>>>>                                 huge sums by microscopic
>>>>                                 extraction,  wouldn't
>>>>                                         > listen to arguments about
>>>>                                 nominal and actual bandwidth.  He
>>>>                                 and some
>>>>                                         > others
>>>>                                         > take the position that a
>>>>                                 case does not exist for Community
>>>>                                 Networks here.
>>>>                                         >
>>>>                                         > Happens to be an iconic
>>>>                                 opinion. It is a challenge to
>>>>                                 present arguments,
>>>>                                         > articles such as this are
>>>>                                 of ample help.
>>>>                                         >
>>>>                                         > Sivasubramanian M
>>>>                                         >
>>>>                                         > On Thu, Aug 16, 2018,
>>>>                                 5:20 PM Marco Zennaro
>>>>                                 <mzennaro at ictp.it
>>>>                                 <mailto:mzennaro at ictp.it>> wrote:
>>>>                                         >
>>>>                                         >> Interesting news:
>>>>                                         >>
>>>>                                         >>
>>>>                                         >>
>>>>                                 https://motherboard.vice.com/en_us/article/ne5k5m/consumer-reports-broadband-company-ratings
>>>>                                         >>
>>>>                                         >> Cheers,
>>>>                                         >> Marco
>>>>                                         >>
>>>>                                         >> Marco Zennaro, PhD //
>>>>                                 Research Officer // T/ICT4D Lab //
>>>>                                 ICTP //
>>>>                                         >> wireless.ictp.it
>>>>                                 <http://wireless.ictp.it>
>>>>                                         >>
>>>>                                         >>
>>>>                                         >>
>>>>                                         >>
>>>>                                 _______________________________________________
>>>>                                         >> DC3 mailing list
>>>>                                         >>
>>>>                                 DC3 at listas.altermundi.net
>>>>                                 <mailto:DC3 at listas.altermundi.net>
>>>>                                         >>
>>>>                                 https://listas.altermundi.net/mailman/listinfo/dc3
>>>>                                         >>
>>>>                                         >
>>>>                                 _______________________________________________
>>>>                                         > DC3 mailing list
>>>>                                         > DC3 at listas.altermundi.net
>>>>                                 <mailto:DC3 at listas.altermundi.net>
>>>>                                         >
>>>>                                 https://listas.altermundi.net/mailman/listinfo/dc3
>>>>                                         >
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>                                         --
>>>>                                         Dr. Sarbani Banerjee Belur
>>>>                                         Senior Project Research
>>>>                                 Scientist
>>>>                                         Program Manager
>>>>                                         Gram Marg: Rural Broadband
>>>>                                 Project
>>>>                                         Department of Electrical
>>>>                                 Engineering
>>>>                                         IIT Bombay
>>>>                                         Powai
>>>>                                         Mumbai 400076
>>>>                                         Mob: +91 9867282979
>>>>                                              +91 7045620077
>>>>                                         Website: www.grammarg.in
>>>>                                 <http://www.grammarg.in>
>>>>                                         Homepage:
>>>>                                 http://homepages.iitb.ac.in/~sarbanibelur/
>>>>                                 <http://homepages.iitb.ac.in/%7Esarbanibelur/>
>>>>                                         Blog:
>>>>                                 sarbanibelur.blogspot.com
>>>>                                 <http://sarbanibelur.blogspot.com>
>>>>
>>>>                                        
>>>>                                 _______________________________________________
>>>>                                         DC3 mailing list
>>>>                                         DC3 at listas.altermundi.net
>>>>                                 <mailto:DC3 at listas.altermundi.net>
>>>>                                        
>>>>                                 https://listas.altermundi.net/mailman/listinfo/dc3
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>                                 _______________________________________________
>>>>                                 DC3 mailing list
>>>>                                 DC3 at listas.altermundi.net
>>>>                                 <mailto:DC3 at listas.altermundi.net>
>>>>                                 https://listas.altermundi.net/mailman/listinfo/dc3
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>                              
>>>>
>>>>                             -- 
>>>>
>>>>                             Sivasubramanian M
>>>>
>>>>                             Please send all replies to
>>>>                             6.Internet at gmail.com
>>>>                             <mailto:6.Internet at gmail.com>
>>>>
>>>>                              
>>>>
>>>>                             _______________________________________________
>>>>                             DC3 mailing list
>>>>                             DC3 at listas.altermundi.net
>>>>                             <mailto:DC3 at listas.altermundi.net>
>>>>                             https://listas.altermundi.net/mailman/listinfo/dc3
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>                      
>>>>
>>>>                     -- 
>>>>
>>>>                     Sivasubramanian M
>>>>
>>>>                     Please send all replies to 6.Internet at gmail.com
>>>>                     <mailto:6.Internet at gmail.com>
>>>>
>>>>                      
>>>>
>>>>                     _______________________________________________
>>>>                     DC3 mailing list
>>>>                     DC3 at listas.altermundi.net
>>>>                     <mailto:DC3 at listas.altermundi.net>
>>>>                     https://listas.altermundi.net/mailman/listinfo/dc3
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>                 -- 
>>>>
>>>>                 Steve Song
>>>>
>>>>                 +1 902 529 0046
>>>>
>>>>                 http://villagetelco.org
>>>>
>>>>                 _______________________________________________
>>>>                 DC3 mailing list
>>>>                 DC3 at listas.altermundi.net
>>>>                 <mailto:DC3 at listas.altermundi.net>
>>>>                 https://listas.altermundi.net/mailman/listinfo/dc3
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>              
>>>>
>>>>             -- 
>>>>
>>>>             Sivasubramanian M
>>>>
>>>>             Please send all replies to 6.Internet at gmail.com
>>>>             <mailto:6.Internet at gmail.com>
>>>>
>>>>              
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>          
>>>>
>>>>         -- 
>>>>
>>>>         Sivasubramanian M
>>>>
>>>>         Please send all replies to 6.Internet at gmail.com
>>>>         <mailto:6.Internet at gmail.com>
>>>>
>>>>          
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>         _______________________________________________
>>>>         DC3 mailing list
>>>>         DC3 at listas.altermundi.net <mailto:DC3 at listas.altermundi.net>
>>>>         https://listas.altermundi.net/mailman/listinfo/dc3
>>>
>>>         -- 
>>>         Dr. Sarbani Banerjee Belur
>>>         Senior Project Research Scientist
>>>         Program Manager
>>>         Gram Marg: Rural Broadband Project
>>>         Department of Electrical Engineering
>>>         IIT Bombay
>>>         Powai
>>>         Mumbai 400076
>>>         Mob: +91 9867282979
>>>              +91 7045620077
>>>         Website: www.grammarg.in <http://www.grammarg.in>
>>>         Homepage: http://homepages.iitb.ac.in/~sarbanibelur/
>>>         Blog: sarbanibelur.blogspot.com <http://sarbanibelur.blogspot.com>
>>>
>
> _______________________________________________
> DC3 mailing list
> DC3 at listas.altermundi.net
> https://listas.altermundi.net/mailman/listinfo/dc3
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